In the case a foot foul or 45 degree rule infractions, you have the right to immediately call a foul.
When you declare an illegal throw (for a foot fault or helicopter or any other reason), the result of that illegal action is nullified. Any toppled pieces are put back to where they were before the throw occurred (consult the other team if there are questions as to where pieces were located previously). The illegal throw still counts as a thrown baton (they do not get a re-throw).
Now if the same rule infractions continue, you continue to call the foul and any toppled pieces that were a result of that illegal action continue to be set back to previous locations. However, the US Kubb National Championship rule set goes into more details on how you could call penalties, but I have never personally witnessed this, and would only be common in tournaments.
Under the U.S. National Kubb Championship's "Rules" tab, they explain with how penalties work for players that continue to break the rules:
In the "Rules Enforcement" section of the USA Kubb rules page, under "General Rules", it states:
"2. Unless stated differently, rules will be enforced by the elected referee for the tournament. The referee will enforce all penalties.
Penalties include: Warning, Game Penalty, Match Penalty, and Personal Ejection.
(a) Warning is a verbal warning to the team. Warnings may be issued more than once for multiple infractions of the same rule at the discretion of the referee.
(b) One baton is forfeited for the remainder of the game for each Game Penalty incurred. A Game Penalty cannot be given without first giving a Warning.
(c) One baton is forfeited for the remainder of the Match (best of three games) for each Match Penalty incurred.
(d) A player is not allowed to continue tournament play for a Personal Ejection they are given. If this makes a team illegal (less than 3 active players), the team will forfeit all remaining games, and be disqualified. The player who received the Personal Ejection may be subject to a ban from future kubb tournaments."
So if a player continued to break the rules you could enforce these penalties.